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Open Blender so you can try the examples here. If you have blender open with a cube in the workspace, highlight the cube by left-clicking it (assuming that you've reversed the mouse button as described HERE). Hit the 'G' (grab) key. The cube will now follow the mouse. Click the LMB or hit the ENTER key to place the cube.
Now, if the cube is selected (blue outline), hit the 'A' key. You will see the blue outline go dark. It's no longer selected. Click the un-selected cube once to select it. If you click the 'highlighted' cube, it will move with your mouse. With the G key, your mouse could be anywhere in the 3D workspace. Using this method, the mouse and the object will remain together until you click to place it.
Either of the previous methods can result in unexpected results. It's sometimes difficult to see just how the object is moving in 3D space. To move the object in a way that will result in more predictable movement, you can do as follows in the next couple of paragraphs.
When you have to move an object, at first, it's often better to do it by the xyz handles (colored arrows) on its 'widget' (their name, not mine). Moving the object free-hand by selecting and grabbing the body of the object can move it in ways not intended. When you move by grabbing the arrows/handles, it limits the movement to the axis that corresponds to the handle you used. In versions up to 2.79b, blender moved objects using the right-click mouse button. This may change in the future. For using the arrows, you move with the left mouse button. If you use the right mouse button, it will move freehand unless you constrain its movement by clicking an axis letter (x, y, z).
To move an object free-hand right-click to select it and then right-click again to move it. Remember. Right-click, not left-click like virtually all other software. In some instances, the selected object won't move with a right click. For those times, you have to use 'G'. Pressing G is the 'grab' command. After pressing G, the object will follow the mouse, even if the mouse is well clear of the object. There is a 'vertex snapping' command. This is used when you want to get two points to be at the same point. One option is to snap vertices. This can be a bit chaotic but I've found that if you position the object to be moved oriented so that if the mouse cursor is between the two vertices to be joined, they will snap together, as expected. When moving objects, you can (should, if you need precision)
It's easier to start if you manipulate objects by the numbers. You can find rotation, location and dimensions in the properties menu. N on the keyboard opens and closes it. The menu is long when all sections are open. Close the ones you don't need. Until you know what you need, remember to scroll up or down. The software typically brings the relevant items into view but that may not alway be true.
I find it a bit strange but the objects are created bisected by the ground plane. To move them up (if you want the object 'on' the ground plane), look at the dimensions of the object in the N-panel (if a simple object) and move it up 1/2 of its 'z' value. This is done precisely by entering the 1/2 height (z) value in the in the z field in the 'location' text field at the top of the N-panel.
When moving manually, the object moves precisely with the mouse movement. Holding the control key down with the LMB will make the object move incrementally (determined by the grid on the ground-plane). Holding the shift button down with the LMB will make the movement of the object about 1/10 of the mouse so you can more accurately move the object. This worked but there are generally better options.